Multifunctionality and biodiversity: Ecosystem services in temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest, USA Patric Brandta,b,⇑, David J. Absonc, Dominick A. DellaSalad, Robert Fellerb, Henrik von Wehrdenb,c a Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Meteorology and Climate - Atmospheric Environmental Research, Kreuzeckbahnstraße 19, 82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany This will be linked to decision making and reporting towards international commitments at the national level, and help develop our impact and By covering a range of ecosystem services in a temperate and a tropical city, we show that densification puts ecosystem services under pressure. The deciduous forest regions are exposed to warm and cold air masses, which cause this area to have four seasons. Ecosystem service approach and multifunctional ecosystems. Ecosystem services provision: To develop an in-depth understanding by 2021 of the impacts of selected management interventions (including restoration) on Ecosystem Service (ES) flows and of the associated trajectories of change. Consequently, all other forest ecosystem services responded as well, because they were influenced by tree species composition, stand density, and age structure, or by import and export of nutrients as well. Temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest simultaneously offer a multitude of ecosystem-based benefits. Temperate forests range across large areas of North America and Eurasia as well as smaller portions of the Southern Hemisphere. 4.4. Our National Grasslands provide aesthetic beauty in many forms including wildlife viewing by being home to a diversity of species including golden eagles, grouse, pronghorn, elk, prairie dogs, and bison. Temperate deciduous forests, the “signature” temperate forest type, reach their greatest extent in the eastern United States and Canada, Europe, China, Japan and western Russia. Temperate forests provide direct ecosystem services (wood, fiber, firewood) to about 18 million people who live in 9200 rural communities . In addition, they offer more than 20 regulation and cultural ecosystem services that benefit many sectors of society [28, 29]. Key words: economic value, ecosystem services, temperate rainforest, Valdivian Rainforest Ecoregion. Overall our results demonstrate that FMAs influenced the considered ecosystem services in different ways (Table 3, Fig. 3). The temperature varies widely from season to season with cold winters and hot, wet summers. 2.2 Relationship Between Services of Forests and Forest Production. At the same time, forests also store carbon, preserve soils and nurture a diversity of species. Examples of terrestrial ecosystems include the tundra, taigas, temperate deciduous forests, tropical rainforests, grasslands, and deserts. The type of terrestrial ecosystem found in a particular place is dependent on the temperature range, the average amount of precipitation received, the soil type, and amount of light it receives. Conflicts arise between the relative importance of services compared to other factors, such as production values. Global importance and conservation status of Chilean temperate rainforests Chilean temperate rainforests in the Valdivian Rainforest Ecoregion (35 –48 S) (Figure 1) represent a unique assemblage of ancient species which today persist as Forest ecosystem products and services Forests play a vital role in Canada’s economic health, with the forest industry accounting for some 297,000 direct and indirect jobs. Temperate deciduous forests are located in the mid-latitude areas which means that they are found between the polar regions and the tropics. 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